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年表 – Timeline

September 20, 2010

1.29.1932The Shanghai Incident, considered "the first significant aerial operations in East Asia" (p.51). Several Japanese navy seaplanes conduct attack on "Chinese military positions in Chapei (the old Chinese sector of Shanghai), on artillery batteries outside the city, and on an armored train at the Shanghai North Railway Station. These operations caused a heavy loss of civilian lives and property" (p.50).Peattie 2001
4.26.1937Aerial bombing of Guernica, Spain.
5.28.1938Aerial bombing of Chinese city of Canton by Japanese Imperial Navy G3M bombers. 600 civilians die and 900 are injured. Air raids on Canton last through summer of 1938.Peattie 2001, 116
1939United States "Air Corps Tactical School course taught that 'large sections of the great Japanese cities are built of flimsy and highly flammable materials. The earthquake disaster of 1924 [sic] bears witness to the fearful destruction that may be inflicted by incendiary bombs.'"Crane 1993, 126
5.3-4.1939Incendiary bombing of Chinese city of Chungking by Japanese Imperial Navy G3M bombers. Raids on the Chinese capitol continue for two years.Peattie 2001, 117
10.25.1941"Tokyo's Air Defenses Penetrated - In War Game"New York Times, 10.25.1941
11.5.1941"Tokyo Subways Not Bombproof" Excerpt: "The report that Tokyo's subways are to be adapted for sheltering the capital's 6,000,000 residents from air raids need not be taken very seriously."New York Times, 11.5.1941
11.15.1941George Marshall, U.S. Army Deputy Chief of Staff, warns during a press conference that if war should break out with Japan that "Flying fortresses will be dispatched immediately to set the paper cities of Japan on fire…. There won't be any hesitation about bombing civilians - it will be all-out."quoted in Sherry, 1987, 109
12.7.1941Imperial Japanese Navy planes attack United States naval base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
12.28.1941"Washington asks for revenge bombings"; Excerpts: "The ruthless bombing of Manila drew strong condemnation and warnings of retaliation here today.... Secretary of State Cordell Hull...said that Japan has an entirely consistent record during recent years, especially since she invaded China in July, 1937, in the practice of the same barbaric methods, the same methods of cruelty and brutality that Adolf Hitler has been practicing in Europe. ... Senator Burton K. Wheeler, Democrat of Montana, declared that Japan would pay for it. 'One can come to only one conclusion from the action of the Japanese,' he said, 'and that is that they are an inhuman and half-civilized race and in the future will be treated as such. The tragedy is that we have given away so much of our material that we cannot retaliate and bomb Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama and Nagasaki and the rest of their industrial centers. The time will come, however, when these Japs will pay the penalty for their treachery. ... Senator Sheridan Downey said..."The Japanese are hastening their own doom.... I am of the opinion that Japanese cities themselves are very vulnerable'.... Representative Lewis K. Rockefeller of New York...likened the 'sheer brutality' of the attack upon old Manila to the act of a 'mad dog.' 'This,' he said, 'calls for retaliation in kind, a meeting on their home ground with the same sort of action.'"New York Times, 12.28.1941
12.29.1941"Barkley Predicts Bombing of Tokyo." Excerpts: "Japan's 'treachery' and 'barbarity' in her attacks on Pearl Harbor and undefended Manila have made it certain that American bombers eventually will bring 'terrible retribution' to her capital of Tokyo, is was asserted today by Senator Barkley, majority leader, in a formal statement. Senator Barkley's statement said....'Manila is suffering, with its 600,000 helpless inhabitants huddled under the rain of Japanese missiles. Think of Tokyo, with ten times as many inhabitants, when the inevitable day of destruction comes, as our bombers swoop down upon the city."New York Times, 12.29.1941
4.18.1942Doolittle Air Raid on Japan. "16 B-25's launched from carrier Hornet carry out first AAF attack on Japanese mainland. 15 of the B-25's bomb targets in Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohoma, and Nagoya." 39 people killes and 311 injured.Carter and Mueller, 1991; Saotome, 2003
8.1.1943H.H. Arnold presents report "An Air Plan for the Defeat of Japan" at Quebec Conference.Crane 1993, 127
6.15.1944First B-29 air raid on Japan. 47 B-29's airborne from China, attack with heavy explosives on Imperial Iron and Steel Works plant in city of Yawata.LeMay and Yenne, 1988
7.7.194414 B-29's airborne from China; attack with heavy explosives on cities of Sasebo, Omura, and Tobata.LeMay and Yenne, 1988
8.10.194427 B-29's airborne from China; attack with heavy explosives on city of Nagasaki.LeMay and Yenne, 1988
8.20.194471 B-29's airborne from China; attack with heavy explosives on Yawata Imperial Iron and Steel Works plant and other targets.LeMay and Yenne, 1988
10.10.1944About 200 naval planes attack and destroy Okinawan capital of Naha.
10.12.1944Major General Haywood Hansell arrives on Saipan
11.24.1944Air raid on Tokyo. First XXI Bomber Command air raid on Japan from Marianas Islands. 222 people killed and 328 injured. "111 B-29's are led by 73d Bomb Wg CG, Gen O'Donnell piloting Dauntless Dotty, copiloted by Maj Robert K Morgan, erstwhile pilot of the famed B-17, Memphis Belle. 35 Very Heavy Bombers bomb primary tgt, Musashino aircraft plant; 50 bomb secondary tgt, urban area and docks; 17 abort en route; the remainder are unable to bomb due to mechanical difficulties. 1 B-29 crashes off Honshu when a fighter rams the bomber... becoming the first XXI BC VHB lost to Japanese action. 1 other ditches after running out of fuel."Carter and Mueller, 1991
11.27.1944Air raid on Tokyo. 41 people killed and 41 injured. "81 Marianas-based B-29's fly against Tokyo. None of the VHBs bomb the primary tgts (Musashino and Nakajima plants) but 59 hit secondary (urban area and docks). 7 bomb Hamamatsu, a T.O. While the mission is in progress 11 enemy airplanes attack Isley Field on Saipan, destroying or damaging several B-29's. AA and intercepting ftrs down 10 aircraft."Carter and Mueller, 1991
11.29.1944Air raid on Tokyo. 82 people killed and 67 injured. "24 B-29's strike Tokyo dock and industrial area during 29.30 Nov. 2 VHBs bomb last resort tgts of Yokohama and Numazu."Carter and Mueller, 1991
12.3.1944 "Almost 70 XXI BC B-29's based in the Marianas bomb Musashino aircraft plant and docks and urban areas at Tokyo. 6 VHBs are lost."Carter and Mueller, 1991
12.18.194484 B-29's airborne, 20th Bomber Command initiates incendiary attack against Chinese city of Hankow, controlled by the Japanese military.Sherry 1987, 256
12.27.1944"B-29's and crews of 313th Bomb Wg (VH), commanded by Col John H Davies, begin to arrive on Tinian, joining the 73d Bomb Wg as the XXI BC’s second operational wg. 39 B-29's from the Marianas bomb Tokyo’s Nakajima and Musashino aircraft plants. 13 attack alternates and T.Os. Enemy ftrs are active, flying over 250 individual attacks on the VHBs. B-29's claim 21 downed. 3 VHBs are lost, 1 to ftrs and 2 to mechanical difficulties."Carter and Mueller, 1991
1.9.1945"72 B-29's are dispatched against Musashino aircraft plant near Tokyo. High winds break up formations so that only 18 can bomb the primary tgt. A large number hits alternates and T.Os."Carter and Mueller, 1991
1.20.1945General Curtis E. LeMay replaces Haywood Hansell as head of the Twenty-First Bomber Command based in the Marianas Islands.LeMay and Yenne, 1988
1.27.1945"76 B-29's of 73d Bomb Wg are airborne against Musashino and Nakajima aircraft plants near Tokyo. Clouds and high winds over tgt area prevent bombing of the primary. 56 VHBs bomb secondary tgt of Tokyo urban area and 6 others attack alternates and T.Os. Ftr opposition is the heaviest to date and 5 B-29's are downed."Carter and Mueller, 1991
2.13-14.1945British and U.S. aerial attack on German city of Dresden kills at least 25,000 people.
2.16-17.1945carrier-based airplane raid on Kanto district air fields and plane manufacturing plants
2.19.1945"150 B-29's are airborne against Musashino aircraft plant hoping to draw air reinforcements away from Iwo Jima which US Marines invade. Thick clouds completely cover the primary so 119 B-29's bomb port and urban area of Tokyo."Carter and Mueller, 1991
2.25.1945"172 B-29's bomb urban area of Tokyo. This is XXI BCs largest mission to date and its first 3-wg strike against Japan as the 73rd and 313th Bomb Wgs are joined by the 314th."Carter and Mueller, 1991
3.4.1945"192 B-29's are airborne against Musashino (Musashi) but heavy clouds prevent bombing the primary. 159 of the VHBs bomb secondary tat, the urban areas of Tokyo, and almost 20 others hit alternate tgts. This aborted try at Musashino marks end of XXI BCs effort to knock out Japanese aircraft industry by high-altitude, daylight precision bombing. (The indirect effect of causing Japanese industrialists to lose confidence in their supposed immunity from air attacks exceeds the effect of actual bomb damage to the aircraft industry)."Carter and Mueller, 1991
3.10.1945Great Tokyo Air Raid. The first largescale incendiary air raid aimed against a Japanese city and its civilian population. 325 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Tokyo. 1,665 tons of incendiary bombs dropped on the Shitamachi working class district of the city. 88,793 people confirmed dead, with estimates of actual deaths exceeding 100,000. 40,918 confirmed injuries; 268,358 houses destroyed; 1,008,005 people affected. "During the predawn hours 279 B-29's, of 325 airborne, blast Tokyo urban area with incendiaries, destroying more than 267,000 buildings about one-fourth in the city and killing more than 83,000 people. This death total is the highest of any single day's action during the war, (exceeding the deaths caused by the firstatomic bomb on Hiroshima). The participating B-29's are from the XXI BC's Bomb Wgs, the 73d, 313th, and 314th, based on Guam, Tinian, and Saipan. The raids are flown at levels ranging from 4,900 to 9,200 ft." Carter et al.Carter and Mueller, 1991; Saotome, 2003
3.11.1945310 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Nagoya.Kerr, 1991
3.13.1945301 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Osaka.Kerr, 1991
3.16.1945330 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Kobe.Kerr, 1991
3.18.1945310 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Nagoya.Kerr, 1991
4.2.1945"During the first 4 hrs after midnight (1.2 Apr), 6 B-29's mine harbor at Kure while more than 100 bomb Nakajima aircraft factory at Tokyo."Carter and Mueller, 1991
4.3.1945"Twice during early morning, 48 B-29's hit aircraft plant at Shizuoka, 68 attack Koizumi aircraft factory and urban areas in Tokyo, and 100-plus strike aircraft plant at Tachikawa and urban area of Kawasaki."Carter and Mueller, 1991
4.7.1945"101 B-29's bomb Nakajima aircraft engine plant at Tokyo while 150-plus hit Mitsubishi aircraft plant at Nagoya. Nearly 30 others hit last resort tgts. 91 P-51’s of VII FC escort the VHBs to Japan for the firsttime and claim 21 kills."Carter and Mueller, 1991
4.12.1945"94 B-29's strike Nakajima aircraft factory at Tokyo while 11 hit secondary tgt of Shizuoka engine plant.VHB gunners claim 16 ftrs downed. 130-plus other B-29's bomb 2 chemical p]ants at Koriyama. 32 more VHBs hit various T.Os. During 12.13 Apr, 5 B-29's mine Shimonoseki Strait. Ftrs from VII FC escorting the daylight operations over Tokyo area claim 15 aircraft downed."Carter and Mueller, 1991
4.13.1945Largescale air raid on Tokyo. 2,459 people killed and 4,746 injured. 666,986 people affected. "During 13.14 Apr almost 330 B-29's bomb Tokyo arsenal area."Carter and Mueller, 1991
4.15.1945"During 15.16 Apr, 194 B-29's strike Kawasaki urban area while 109 hit urban area of Tokyo."Carter and Mueller, 1991
5.5.1945"45 B-29's bombair fields at Oita, Tachiarai, Kanoya, and Chiran; 148 (including B-29's of 58th Bomb Wg flying their first attack of Japan from Tinian) hit navy aircraft factory and arsenal at Kure, and 86 drop mines in Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay, and at points in the Inland Sea. The B-29's claim 11 ftrs downed."Carter and Mueller, 1991
5.14.1945524 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Nagoya.Kerr, 1991
5.17.1945516 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Nagoya.Kerr, 1991
5.19.1945309 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Tachikawa.Kerr, 1991
5.23.1945"During 23.24 May, 520 out of 562 B-29's sent against Tokyo bomb an urban-industrial area S of the Imperial Palace along W side of the harbor. 5 others hit T.Os. 17 B-29's are lost. This is the largest number of B-29's participating in a single mission during World War II."Carter and Mueller, 1991
5.25.1945Largescale air raid on Tokyo. 3,651 people killed and 17,899 injured. 620,125 people affected. "During 25.26 May, 464 B-29's pound urban area of Tokyo immediately S of the Imperial Palace just N of that bombed on 23.24 May, including financial, commercial, and governmental districts as well as factories and homes. 26 B-29's are lost on this mission, the highest single-day loss of VHBs in World War II. US gunners claim 19 ftrs destroyed."Carter and Mueller, 1991
5.29.1945510 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Yokohama.Kerr, 1991
6.1.1945509 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Osaka.Kerr, 1991
6.5.1945530 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Kobe.Kerr, 1991
6.7.1945449 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Osaka.Kerr, 1991
6.15.1945511 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Osaka and Amagasaki.Kerr, 1991
6.28.1945509 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Okayama, Sasebo, Moji, and Nobeoka.Kerr, 1991
7.1.1945575 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Ube, Kure, Shimonoseki and Kumamoto.Kerr, 1991
7.3.1945499 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Kochi, Himeji, Takamatsu, and Tokushima.Kerr, 1991
7.6.1945534 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Chiba, Akashi, Shimizu, and Kofu.Kerr, 1991
7.9.1945499 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Sendai, Sakai, Gifu, and Wakayama.Kerr, 1991
7.12.1945488 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Utsunomiya, Ichinomiya, Tsuruga, and Uwajima.Kerr, 1991
7.16.1945488 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Numazu, Oita, Kuwana, and Hiratsuka.Kerr, 1991
7.19.1945487 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Fukui, Hitachi, Choshi, and Okazaki.Kerr, 1991
7.24.1945625 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Handa, Nagoya, Takarazuka, Osaka, Tsu, and Kawana.Kerr, 1991
7.26.1945361 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Matsuyama, Tokuyama, and Omuta.Kerr, 1991
7.28.1945"VII FC 140-plus P-51's, based on Iwo Jima, hit 9 objectives (air fields and military tgts) in wide area around Tokyo and attack a destroyer escort along Chiba Peninsula, leaving it burning."Carter and Mueller, 1991
8.1.1945667 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Hachioji, Toyama, Nagaoka, and MitoLeMay and Yenne, 1988
8.3.1945"VII FC Ftrs from Iwo Jima fly nearly 100 effective sorties throughout Tokyo area, hittingair fields, rail installations, and trains."Carter and Mueller, 1991
8.5.1945494 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Saga, Maebashi, Imabari, and Nishinomiya-Mikage.Kerr, 1991
8.5.1945"VII FC VII FC is officially assigned to Twentieth AF. 100-plus P-51's strikeair fields and military installations in large area around Tokyo, scoring especially effective hits at Katori A.F."Carter and Mueller, 1991
8.6.1945Nuclear attack of city of Hiroshima.
8.6.1945"VII FC Almost 100 ftrs from Iwo Jima attackair fields and military installations at 6 locations throughout general area around Tokyo."Carter and Mueller, 1991
8.8.1945245 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Yawata. Kerr, 1991
8.8.194598 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on city of Fukuyama Kerr, 1991
8.9.1945Nuclear attack of city of Nagasaki.
8.10.1945"70 B-29's bomb arsenal complex at Tokyo."Carter and Mueller, 1991
8.14.1945Final B-29 combat missions of World War II. 186 B-29's airborne, incendiary attack on cities of Kumagaya and Isesaki; total of 741 B-29's launched against various targets on this day.Kerr, 1991; LeMay and Yenne, 1988


Carter, Kit C., and Robert Mueller, eds. U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II: Combat Chronology 1941-1945. Washington, DC: Center for Air Force History, 1991.

Crane, Conrad. Bombs, Cities, and Civilians: American Airpower Strategy in World War II. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993.

Kerr, E. Bartlett. Flames over Tokyo: The U.S. Army Air Forces’ Incendiary Campaign against Japan 1944-1945. New York: Donald I. Fine, Inc., 1991.

LeMay, Curtis E., and Bill Yenne. Superfortress: The Story of the B-29 and American Air Power. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988.

Peattie, Mark R. Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power, 1909-1941. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001.

Saotome Katsumoto. Zusetsu Tôkyô Daikûshû. Tokyo: Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 2003. 「図説東京大空襲」早乙女勝元、河出書房新社、2003年